IAGS2017 Session 13

Day 4, 13 July 1330-1500 Session 13

Genocide in the Ancient World: Iron Age Levant and Roman Empire

Location W332, Level 3, Forgan Smith
Chair Robbie Peters; University of Sydney
Genocidal Texts and Interethnic Violence in the Iron Age Levant
Authors Tracy Lemos, University of Western Ontario
Abstract This paper will examine certain key texts from the ancient Levant—namely, Deuteronomy 7, 20, Joshua 6-8, 10-11, and the Mesha inscription from ancient Moab—that call for and describe genocidal killing of neighboring groups. The majority of scholars date these texts to the Iron II period (1000-586 BCE), an era that was marked by significant population increases and related competition between groups over resources. While interpreters have tended to blame the genocidal imaginary in these texts on a cultural concern with distinguishing between order and chaos, this paper will demonstrate that these texts display no clear language pointing to this concern as the underlying impetus for violence. Instead, the focus in the texts is on possession of land, a resource that had come into short supply in this historical period. The paper will also dispute the scholarly tendency to dislocate textual violence from actual violence by demonstrating that interethnic violence between the smaller polities of the Levantine region was a persistent historical reality between the 10th through the 8th centuries BCE and even later in the periods of Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian hegemony. The primary contribution of the paper is to argue for a much greater focus on the part of biblical scholars and historians of this region on the material bases of violence and for a decreased tendency to project theological and ideological concerns that are not apparent into the texts at hand.
Biography Tracy M. Lemos completed a B.A. at Brown University in Judaic Studies and a Ph.D. with distinction at Yale University in Religious Studies, specializing in Hebrew Bible and the history of ancient Israel. She is Associate Professor of Hebrew Bible in the Faculty of Theology at Huron University College and a member of the graduate school faculty of the University of Western Ontario. Lemos is author of Marriage Gifts and Social Change in Ancient Palestine: 1200 BCE to 200 CE (Cambridge, 2010), and Violence and Personhood in Ancient Israel and Comparative Contexts (Oxford, in press), as well as “Dispossessing Nations: Population Growth, Scarcity, and Genocide in Ancient Israel and Twentieth-century Rwanda,” in Ritual Violence in the Hebrew Bible, ed. Saul Olyan (Oxford, 2015), among other works. She plans to write her third book on genocide in biblical texts.
Between Clemency and Genocide: The Representation of Mass-Violence in Praise of the Roman Emperors
Authors Tristan Taylor, University of New England
Abstract An early fifth century CE Roman triumphal inscription celebrates the apparent extinguishment of the nation of the Goths (ILS 798). In the same era, however, the poet Claudian praises Rome as formidable in war, but gentle towards subdued foreign nations (De Bello Gildonico 97-8), echoing the poet Vergil’s famous injunction of proper Roman behaviour (Aeneid 6.853). This paper will explore the tension between the celebration of clemency (clementia) towards conquered peoples and the praise of their extermination in Roman imperial ideology as represented in Latin panegyric: oratory and poetry praising emperors. It will be argued that two trends appear. First, even in a genre as prone to hyperbole as panegyric, the extermination of peoples is not frequently praised. In some instances, it is potential, rather than actual, extermination that is mentioned (e.g., Claudian, Bellum Gothicum 1.90-103). Violence is certainly praised (e.g., Claudian, de Tertio Consulatu 147-150; Pan.Lat. 2(12).5.2-4), but more frequent are celebrations of imperial expansion (eg, Pan.Lat. 8(2).3.3), of clemency (eg, Pan.Lat. 4(10).37.2) or of once hostile nations now subservient to the empire (eg, Pan.Lat. 2(12).22). Secondly, although rare, extermination is nonetheless considered praiseworthy. Such praise particularly occurs in the context of exemplary, retributive imperial responses to nomadic tribes for invasion or treachery (eg, Pan.Lat. 12(9).22.6; ILS 798). This reflects the pattern in Roman historical descriptions of mass-violence, often described in a retributive context and directed against those on the periphery of the Roman empire and Roman conceptions of ‘civilisation’.
Biography Dr Tristan Taylor completed a BA/LLB at the University of Tasmania in 2000. Following time as a legal resource officer for the Australian government in environmental policy, he completed an MA in Roman Law at the same institution in 2006 and a PhD in Classics at Yale University in 2010. Since 2010 he has taught in the Law School and School of Humanities at the University of New England, Australia. He is currently writing a monograph on genocide in the Roman world for Taylor & Francis, due in 2017, and has presented internationally on genocide in the Roman world in Australia, Spain, the U.K. and United States and published on Roman law and modern law. He was a visiting scholar in Genocide Studies at Yale University in 2013-14 and in Classics at the University of Texas at Austin in 2015.
Julius Caesar and Roman Laws of War
Authors Jane Bellemore, University of Newcastle
Abstract During a battle or campaign, Roman soldiers generally attacked the combatants of an enemy nation, although civilians might be also attacked and even killed, if they impeded military proceedings. After an enemy had surrendered, the victorious Roman general would determine the fate of survivors, basing his decision on a range of political and military factors, and once the level of ‘guilt’ of the nation or of the surviving captives had been established, the general would inflict penalties. These ranged, at one extreme, from the imposition of a treaty of submission to the Romans, to, at the other, the nation’s complete eradication (execution of its men, enslavement of its women and children, and destruction of its dwellings). Most writers about Rome accept that Roman generals of all periods and in all theatres of war followed similar procedures. First I will examine the usual protocols for examining and punishing a defeated enemy, in particular as described by Livy (ca 60 BC – AD 17), and then I will consider one exception to the general rule. This occurred in 53 BC, when Julius Caesar ordered his men to eradicate the Gallic nation of the Eburones pre-emptively. I will show how Caesar, in his Commentary on the Gallic War, explains why he inflicted one of the harshest penalties that might be imposed on a defeated nation without the nation being under his jurisdiction. I will conclude by showing how Caesar’s rationale might be used to explain other instances where the Romans eliminated particular nations.
Biography I undertook at BA and MA at the University of Western Australia, and a PhD at the University of London. In both the MA and PhD, I focussed on the literature and history of the Late Roman Republic and Early Empire. I have taught at ANU, UWA and for the past sixteen years at UoN, and in most of the courses I have taught, the subject of warfare has dominated. Some years ago, I introduced a course on warfare in the ancient world, and this has sharpened my interest in this area. For the last few years I have been engaged in researching specifically on the topic, ‘The treatment of civilians in Roman Warfare’.

Teaching the Genocide Experience in Different Contexts

Location W349, Level 3, Forgan Smith
Chair Brenda Gaydosh; West Chester University of Pennsylvania
Prevention of Genocide and Mass Atrocities: Educating Future Military Planners
Authors Michael Weaver, U.S. Army Command & General Staff College
Abstract In A Problem From Hell: America and the Age of Genocide, Samantha Powers writes that the US is “extremely slow to muster the imagination needed to rekon with evil.” Despite concern among the public, the press, Congress, the national security community, and sometimes even the President, the U.S. consistently declined to employ military force to halt atrocities. Since Powers seminal work the United States Military has met Powers challenge to ‘rekon with evil’ through genocide prevention education for mid-career military officers. My paper will detail the steps taken to educate mid-career officers about genocide and mass atrocity prevention at the United States Army’s Command and General Staff College. The paper begins with a description of international agreements such as Responsibility to Protect (R2P), prevention of and response to mass atrocities (MARO), and President Obama’s Presidential Study Directive 10 (PSD-10) that directs government agencies to develop programs to prevent mass atrocities and genocide. The paper concludes by describing the US Army at Ft Levenworth’s response to PSD-10, including the prevention of and response to mass atrocities and genocide education.
Biography I am a retired US Marine. Following 30 years of active duty I acepted a teaching position at the US Army’s Command and General Staff College (CGSC). I am currently an Assistant Professor of Logistics and Resource Operations for the Command and General Staff Officer Course, a 10-month school for military officers and government civilians. In June of 2010, I attended a two-week conference sponsored by the Department of Defense and the Auschwitz Institute of Peace and Reconciliation. Following that lifechanging two weeks I developed a course for prevention of mass atrocities. The course is currently part CGSC’s Genocide and Mass Atrocity Studies Program. More recently I completed requirements for a Masters of Arts in Holocaust and Genocide Education from Gratz College in Pennsylvania.
Teaching Genocide Education in Tasmanian Schools
Authors Jordana Schmidt, St James Catholic College
Abstract History education in Australian schools includes a widening scope for the implementation of genocide studies, particularly of the Holocaust. However, it is often limited by stakeholders’ personal understandings of cultural and social mores in regards to education about Indigenous Australian communities’ experiences of genocide and ongoing disadvantage. This is compounded by recent changes made to the Australian Curriculum in the last review, as well as the small pools of knowledge retained by Indigenous communities after the genocides occurred. This is particularly noticeable in the Tasmanian context, where communities often rely on schools to help their children connect with and learn about their culture and history. Undertaking genocide education with students who are part of surviving communities requires a wide range of pedagogical strategies in order to do so successfully, and also serves to build empathy in non-Indigenous students. Good genocide education pedagogy includes teaching strategies like reflective dialogues, engagement with cultural resources and sites, constructing robust counter narratives to individual perspectives of history, and visual and kinaesthetic learning approaches, and benefits from a cross curricular focus to stimulate deep learning. These can be used within a traditional classroom setting, or within a dynamic and out-of-school learning environment. It results in many flow-on effects for communities, and can effect increases in levels of health and wellbeing, literacy and numeracy and other legacies of genocide. This is particularly evident in the Tasmanian Aboriginal context, and principles of pedagogies utilised to achieve this can be applied to other contexts in genocide education.
Biography Jordana Schmidt is the Humanities Coordinator at St James Catholic College. She holds a BA (International Relations and History) from ANU, and a Grad. Dip. Ed. (Secondary) from Monash. She is currently undertaking a MEd (Educational Leadership and Educational Policy) at Monash. Jordana was a finalist in the University of Tasmania Faculty of Education Teaching Excellence category of the Tasmanian Young Achievers Awards in 2016. She has provided professional development on teaching conflicted histories to professional organisations. Jordana and her teaching colleagues were instrumental in the College being awarded a Tasmanian Human Rights Week ‘A Fairer World’ School award in 2014 because of their work to promote Aboriginal culture and lessen racism in the student body.
How Can Education Help Prevent Mass Atrocities?
Authors Clara Ramírez Barat, Auschwitz Institute for Peace and Reconciliation
Abstract While genocide prevention is a complex and multi-layered undertaking, it is widely acknowledged that the most effective preventive policies should focus on long-term structural efforts. Among them, education has been widely employed to promote a culture of human rights and democratic citizenship among younger generations in order to build more open, tolerant and cohesive societies. Despite the existence of data that supports the potential for educational programs to positively influence the knowledge and attitudes of students, the manner in which such learning can effectively contribute to the prevention or recurrence of violence has not always been clearly articulated. Taking this problematic into account, this contribution will examine the complexities of the relationship between education and mass atrocity prevention, trying to build an explanatory account (in contrast to a descriptive or normative exercises). The aim will be to develop plausible accounts about how education can contribute to overall prevention efforts. In doing so, the paper will look into different theories of education and moral development, but will also consider the importance of the social, cultural and political context in which these type of efforts are being carried out. The final aim of the exercise will be to help practitioners design more robust educational interventions.
Biography Clara Ramírez-Barat is the Director of the Auschwitz Institute for Peace and Reconciliation’s Educational Policies Program. Before joining AIPR, she was a Senior Research Associate at the International Centre for Transitional Justice, where her research focused on different aspects of transitional justice with a special interest on outreach, media and culture. More recently, Clara worked on the intersection between transitional justice and education, both by developing a child-friendly version of the Kenyan Truth Commission’s final report and as part of a two-year research project on Transitional Justice and Education. She is the editor of Beyond Outreach: Transitional Justice, Culture and Society (2014), and the co-editor of Transitional Justice and Education: Learning Peace (2016), as well as author of numerous reports, articles and books chapters. Born in Madrid, Clara obtained her Ph.D. in 2007 at University Carlos III of Madrid and also holds an M.A. in Philosophy from Columbia University (2002).

Film Session G

Location Moot Court W237, Level 2, Forgan Smith
Sweet Dreams (2012)
Director Lisa Fruchtman and Rob Fruchtman
Runtime 84 minutes
Abstract Powerful sounds pierce the silence of the Rwandan countryside. Curious children gawk outside the gate. This is something new in Rwanda--a group of women, 60 strong, pounding out rhythms of power and joy. For the women--orphans, widows, wives and children of perpetrators--the group has been a place to begin to live again, to build new relationships, to heal the wounds of the past. Yet the struggle to survive and provide for their families persists. So when Kiki came up with the idea to open Rwanda's first and only ice cream shop, the women were intrigued . . . What was ice cream exactly and how would they do it? Kiki invited Jennie and Alexis of Brooklyn’s Blue Marble Ice Cream to come to Rwanda to help the drummers open their shop, which they aptly named Inzozi Nziza (Sweet Dreams). Sweet Dreams follows this remarkable group of Rwandan women as they emerge from the devastation of the genocide to create a new future for themselves.

Early Career Scholars Workshop: Career Development

Location E302, Level 3, Forgan Smith
Chair Phil Orchard; University of Queensland
Introduction and Facilitated Discussion of Participants’ Current Research Projects
Publication Strategies
Authors Adam Jones, University of British Colombia
Dirk Moses, University of Sydney
Melanie O'Brien, University of Queensland
Biography Adam Jones is Professor of Political Science at the University of British Columbia in Kelowna, BC. The third edition of his widely-used textbook, Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction, was published in January 2017.

Dirk Moses has taught history at the University of Sydney since 2000, and was chair of global and colonial history at the European University Institute, Florence, between 2011 and 2015. He is the author of German Intellectual and the Nazis Past (2007) and editor of many anthologies on genocide. Since 2011, he has been senior editor of the Journal of Genocide Research, and is completing a book called The Problems of Genocide with Cambridge University Press.

Dr Melanie O’Brien is a Research Fellow at the TC Beirne Law School, and Researcher in the Asia Pacific Centre for Responsibility to Protect, University of Queensland (UQ), Australia. Her research examines the connection between human rights violations and the genocide process. Melanie sits on the IAGS Advisory Board and is co-convenor of the 2017 IAGS Conference at UQ. She is an Australian Red Cross QLD International Humanitarian Law Committee member, and is on the Editorial Boards of Human Rights Review and IAGS journal Genocide Studies and Prevention. She is the author of Criminalising Peacekeepers: Modernising National Approaches to Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (2017, Palgrave). Melanie’s previous work includes Anti-Slavery Australia (UTS); the ARC Centre of Excellence in Policing and Security (Griffith University); the National Human Rights Institution of Samoa; and the Legal Advisory Section of the Office of the Prosecutor at the International Criminal Court. She is an admitted legal practitioner.
Looking for Funding
Authors Phil Orchard, University of Queensland
Biography Dr Phil Orchard is a Senior Lecturer in International Relations and Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Queensland, and the Research Director of the Asia-Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect. His research focuses on international efforts to provide legal and institutional protections to forced migrants and war-affected civilians. He is the author of A Right to Flee: Refugees, States, and the Construction of International Cooperation (Cambridge University Press, 2014), which won the 2016 International Studies Association Ethnicity, Nationalism, and Migration Studies Section Distinguished Book Award, and the forthcoming book Protecting the Internally Displaced: Rhetoric and Reality (Routledge, 2017). He is also the co-editor, with Alexander Betts, of Implementation and World Politics: How International Norms Change Practice (Oxford University Press, 2014).