IAGS2017 Session 5

Day 2, 11 July 1100-1230 Session 5

Creative Representations of Genocide Experiences

Location W332, Level 3, Forgan Smith
Chair Donna-Lee Frieze; Deakin University
Journalisms of Post-Conflict: Commentary, Resistance and Memory in Owen Maseko’s Banned Zimbabwean Genocide Exhibition
Authors Shepherd Mpofu, University of Johannesburg
Abstract This paper argues that in a context where freedoms of expression and state controlled media’s silence on sensitive issues like the Matabeleland genocide of the 1980s art has played an important journalistic role in keeping issues relevant. Debates on the postcolonial culture of violence in Zimbabwe are suppressed by the state. A state imposed culture of silence has helped sustain the ruling Zimbabwe African National Union Patriotic Front’s (ZANU-PF) stranglehold on power. ZANU-PF, with the help of state media, has refused to be accountable in the Gukurahundi episodes where it was the perpetrator. This paper is therefore a critical discourse analysis of how mainstream journalism has failed to hold power accountable leading to alternative forms of journalism like art emerging to play a critical role. The paper explores how art resists state imposed silences, challenges official narratives and offers alternative and counter-memories to postcolonial Zimbabwean violence. Focus is on the Gukurahundi genocide which took place between 1982-1987 claiming well in excess of 20000 lives and affecting mostly South Western parts of Zimbabwe – the Midlands and Matabeleland regions. The research uses in-depth interviews with Maseko, a human rights lawyer and cultural expert to negotiate the terrain of silences, pain and socio-political issues in Zimbabwe. The overarching question is on how art has filled an important lacuna in genocide debates and what does this mean for a nationally important but silenced topic of genocide that killed more than 20 000 members of one ethnic group soon after independence.
Biography Shepherd Mpofu holds a Ph.D. in Media Studies and is currently a Global Excellence Research Fellow at the University of Johannesburg. His research and teaching interests are in media and identity, politics, digital media, citizen journalism and comparative media systems. His latest publications include the following: ‘Making heroes, (un)making the nation?: ZANU-PF’s imaginations of the Heroes Acre, heroes and construction of identity in Zimbabwe from 2000 to 2015’ (African Identities), ‘Toxification of national holidays and national identity in Zimbabwe’s post 2000 nationalism’ (Journal of African Cultural Studies, 28: 1, pp. 28–43), and ‘When the subaltern speaks: Citizen journalism and genocide “victims’” voices online’ (Digital African Review: A special issue of African Journalism Studies, 36: 4, pp. 82–101).
‘My body; a war zone’: Documenting Stories on Wartime Sexual Violence in Bosnia and Nepal
Authors Olivera Simic, Griffith University
Abstract A photo exhibition ‘My Body: A War Zone’ features the portraits and testimonies of women survivors of conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) from Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), Nepal, Colombia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The exhibition aims to bring attention to individual stories in an effort to overcome the silence and stigma associated with CRSV. This paper will analyse this transnational project that brings four acclaimed photographers from different parts of the globe to re-construct women’s images and testimonies in public city spaces. The paper will focus on the BiH and Nepal part of the photo exhibition and draw on fieldwork and interviews with Velma Šaric who was the curator and organiser of BiH exhibitions and NayanTara, an independent photographer and curator based in Kathmandu, Nepal. The paper argues that grassroots artistic initiatives may offer significant and distinct reparative contribution to transitional justice processes and can function as an important mechanism of transitional justice – guarantees of non-repetition.
Biography Olivera Simic is a Senior Lecturer with the Griffith Law School, Griffith University, Australia and a Visiting Professor with UN University for Peace in Costa Rica. Her research engages with transitional justice, international law and gender. Simic has published numerous journal articles, book chapters and books in the field of transitional justice and international peacekeeping.
Continuity of the Kurdish Genocide: An Artist’s Account
Authors Osman Ahmed, University of Sulaimani
Abstract In my presentation I will discuss the processes of how I developed a technique of drawing the memory of Anfal survivors by talking to the victims and listen to their stories and then digest that information then start to create my sketches. I will explain how the process of drawing evolve from oral story into a sketches and drawing that each one tells a story of an event or incident that had happen during the infamous Anfal operation. My research investigates and records through drawing, collective memories of the Kurdish victims/survivors of the Anfal. This is the first systematic ‘visual documentation’ of the Anfal through direct encounter with the victims and their testimonies, and attempts to answer a basic question: Can genocide be documented through drawing to convey the collective horror and despair? In other words: can drawing be used to preserve memory of the genocide? I will start the presentation by briefly talking about my research project and a short background history to Anfal genocide and idea of documenting this crime. The presentation consists of PowerPoint slide show with 50 slides that each represents a drowning and the whole presentation will last about 20 minutes. During showing the every slide I will try to tell the story of that particular slide/drawing and how it has come to live.
Biography Dr Osman Ahmed is a researcher at Kurdology Centre for Kurdish Studies,University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region. Ahmed graduated from the Institute of Art in Sulaimani-Iraq (1985), earned his MA in Drawing from Camberwell School of Art in London (2007) and his PhD from London University of Arts (2013), with an unprecedented PhD project (Documenting the Kurdish Genocide (Anfal 1988) through Drawing).The thesis wholly investigates artists’ responses to crimes against humanity, and records through 355 detailed drawings testimonies/memories of 15 Anfal survivors as well as investigating the Kurds’ collective memory of the Genocide. Osman Ahmed has participated, as a member of panel and guest speaker, in many conferences and seminars on Anfal and Genocide, and has also exhibited his artworks on the al-Anfalover the years in the Middle East and Europe, including a three month exhibition of his artworks entitled the “Displaced”, in summer 2008, at London Imperial War Museum.

The Indonesian post-1965 genocide: reflections on the International People's tribunal on the 1965 crimes against humanity in Indonesia

Location W349, Level 3, Forgan Smith
Chair Akihisa Matsuno; Osaka University
The Indonesian Killings of 1965 and the International People’s Tribunal
Authors Saskia E. Wieringa, University of Amsterdam
Abstract Can the mass killings in Indonesia after the ‘events’ on October 1, 1965 be qualified as genocide? The 2012 report of the National Human Rights Commission (Komnas HAM) did not include genocide among the grave human rights violations it had found overwhelming evidence for. The perpetrators of these mass murders have never been tried and the successive Indonesian governments have never dealt with these atrocities. Against this background a group of victims, activists and researchers organized the International People's Tribunal on the 1965 mass crimes against humanity in Indonesia after October 1 1965. (IPT 1965). The hearings were held in November 2015, and the final report of the judges was presented in July 2016. In this paper I present the arguments put forward in the research report on why the massacres of that period can be included as one of the genocides in the 20th century. The massacres in Indonesia recently received wide international attention in Oppenheimer’s gripping films“ The Act of Killing” and “The look of Silence” (Oppenheimer, 2012 and 2014). The new presidency of Joko Widodo brought hopes that the Indonesian government would deal seriously with its history of mass human rights violations. But those hopes have evaporated. International pressure thus is important. After the final report of the Panel of Judges the IPT 1965 submitted a report to the UPR of the ICCPR, first half of 2017. The paper will conclude with a discussion on what further steps might be taken internationally.
Biography Prof Dr Saskia E. Wieringa, Professor emerita at the University of Amsterdam, has been researching Indonesian history for over 35 years. Her thesis was on the history of the women’s movement in Indonesia and included an analysis of the propaganda campaign against Gerwani, the Communist women’s organization that was destroyed after October 1965. Since then she wrote a novel on the topic (Crocodile Hole) and collaborated in a film project (The Women and the Generals). In 2014 she co-founded the Indonesian People’s Tribunal 1965, which she has chaired since then. Presently she is working on a number of book projects on the Indonesian genocide. She has published over 30 books and hundreds of articles on topics such as women’s same-sex relations, gender relations and women’s movements.
IPT Findings on Genocide in Indonesia in 1965
Authors Helen Jarvis, Independent scholar
Abstract The panel of judges in the International People's Tribunal on 1965 Crimes Against Humanity in Indonesia were presented with an indictment by the Prosecution consisting of nine counts of crimes against humanity. Notably absent from this list was the crime of genocide. Nevertheless, the judges were formally seized with the issue of whether the acts brought before the tribunal could also be characterised as genocide by an amicus curiae brief from Daniel Feierstein and Irene Massimino of Argentina petitioning the tribunal to make such a finding. Furthermore, the research report provided to the judges had included additional argumentation. The paper will review the process followed by the judges in considering the crime of genocide in the absence of an indictment, and the positive finding they reached that the facts brought before the Tribunal by the Prosecution include acts that fall within those enumerated in the Genocide Convention committed against a significant and substantial section of the Indonesian nation or “Indonesian national group,” a protected group as enumerated in the Genocide Convention, with the specific intent to annihilate or destroy that section in whole or in part, and that this finding possibly applies also to crimes committed against the Chinese ethnic minority group. It is argued that the IPT’s findings on genocide may contribute to a greater understanding of the nature and dimensions of the events of 1965 and to the interpretation and application of the Genocide Convention to cases of destruction of a significant part of the majority national group.
Biography Dr Helen Jarvis was a member of the panel of judges in the International People's tribunal on the 1965 crimes against humanity in Indonesia and is a Vice-president of the Permanent People's Tribunal. She was formerly Chief of Public Affairs and of the Victims Support Section of the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, is the co-author with Tom Fawthrop of the book Getting away with genocide? Elusive justice and the Khmer Rouge tribunal and holds a PhD in Indonesian studies from the University of Sydney.
Symbolic Violence During the Mass Killings of 1965-1966 in Indonesia and the Occupation of Timor Leste (1975–1999)
Authors Annie Pohlman, University of Queensland
Abstract In this paper I examine and compare the forms of spectacularised violence perpetrated against civilians by the Indonesian military and co-opted civilian militias during two periods of protracted crimes against humanity: the Indonesian killings of 1965–1966 and the occupation of Timor Leste between 1975 and 1999. I focus on specific forms of physical violence against the bodies of internal enemies of the Indonesian military: against suspected Communists during the mass killings of 1965-1966 and against suspected independence separatists or FRETILIN supporters in Timor Leste. I compare the forms of this violence and the places where this violence was enacted in order to highlight their communicative intent (Rothenberg, 2003). Understood as acts of ‘public presentational torture’, these acts of spectacularised violence involved the intentional display or presentation of torture and of deceased, often mutilated human bodies or body parts in places of general public activity with the purpose of intimidating or terrorising the population (Feldman, 1991; Appadurai, 1998). Such acts were a frequent feature of the Indonesian military’s terror tactics during both periods. By comparing the forms of this violence during the two conflict periods, I aim to understand better the broader practices of torture perpetrated during Indonesia’s “New Order” military regime (1965–1998).
Biography Dr Annie Pohlman is Lecturer in Indonesian studies at The School of Languages and Cultures, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. She is author of Women, Sexual Violence, and the Indonesian Killings of 1965-1966 (Routledge, 2015), and co-editor of Genocide and Mass Atrocities in Asia: Legacies and Prevention (Routledge, 2013). She is currently co-editing two volumes on the 1965-1966 mass killings in Indonesia, with A/Prof. Kate McGregor, Dr. Jess Melvin and Prof. Saskia E. Wieringa. Her research interests include comparative genocide studies, Indonesian history, gendered experiences of violence, and torture. Her current research program tracks forms of torture throughout Indonesia’s “New Order” military regime (1965–1998).

Definitions of Genocide III

Location W431, Level 4, Forgan Smith
Chair Samantha A. Capicotto; Auschwitz Institute for Peace and Reconciliation
A Genocide Analysis of the August 1998 Massacre of Shia Hazaras by the Taliban in Mazar-e Sharif, Northern Afghanistan
Authors Dallas Mazoori, Independent researcher
Abstract When the Taliban captured Afghanistan’s northern city of Mazar-e Sharif on 8 August 1998, they perpetrated one of the worst atrocities in the country’s recent memory. The massacre of as many as 6000-8000 predominantly ethnic Hazara civilians was carried out on a scale and with a brutality that remains unparalleled, even in the dark chapters of Afghanistan’s modern history. Of the many episodes of mass killing perpetrated throughout Afghanistan’s decades of conflict, the massacre in Mazar-e Sharif stands out due to Taliban senior command’s direct and public incitement to destroy the Hazara minority. Through factual and legal analysis this paper argues that the August 1998 massacre in Mazar-e Sharif amounts to genocide within the definition provided by Article II of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide 1948 and customary international law.
Biography Dallas Mazoori, JD is a lawyer and transitional justice practitioner with a particular interest in genocide and the persecution of ethnic and religious minorities in Afghanistan and Pakistan. From 2008 to 2011 she coordinated the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission’s Conflict Mapping project, collecting and analysing 8000 witness testimonies on war crimes and crimes against humanity. She has also worked in Afghanistan for the International Center for Transitional Justice, Physicians for Human Rights and as a consultant documenting gender based violence for UN bodies. Aside from her experience in Afghanistan, Dallas has worked for the International Forensic Program at Physicians for Human Rights in New York City and most recently in Northern Iraq, specialising in building local forensic capacity in states experiencing or emerging from armed conflict. Dallas currently practices in litigation with the Victorian Government Solicitor’s Office in Melbourne, Australia.
Investigating the Correlation between Genocide and Slavery
Authors Ashley Greene, Keene State College
Abstract This paper explores intersections between the fields of genocide studies and slavery studies. Though genocide and slavery frequently occur simultaneously, the two phenomena are rarely studied together. Scholars of genocide writing on the topic have focused attention on debates over maintaining terminological and conceptual distinctions, rather than on possible correlations or causal links. Only in the last few years have scholars in both fields begun to explore how genocide and slavery interact with one another in specific contexts. Examples include Adam Jones’ treatment of the Soviet Gulag system in his 2011 textbook, Genocide, and remarks by Kevin Bales on the topic of slavery and genocide in Africa, given at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda in 2012. The purpose of this paper is to offer a preliminary investigation into the correlation between genocide and slavery. I will begin by analyzing instances in which scholars of genocide and slavery address connections and divergences between the two phenomena. I will then compare two case studies - the 1904 Herero Genocide in German Southwest Africa and the systematic enslavement of black Africans in the Congo Free State in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which led to approximately 10 million deaths. In both cases, attention will be paid to how perpetrators’ primary objectives correlated with the simultaneous occurrence of slavery and genocide. I will end with a discussion of whether a better understanding of the interaction between genocide and slavery holds promise for genocide prevention.
Biography Ashley Greene is an Assistant Professor of Holocaust and Genocide Studies at Keene State College in New Hampshire, and Academic Programs Officer, Africa for the Auschwitz Institute for Peace and Reconciliation. She holds a joint Ph.D. in Peace Studies and History from the Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies at the University of Notre Dame, where she specialized in twentieth-century East Africa. Her research focuses on the role of education in post-conflict and transitional societies in East Africa. She has a forthcoming book chapter in (Re)Constructing Memory: Education, Identity and Conflict. She is a recipient of the National Security Education Program David L. Boren Fellowship, and the University of Tel Aviv Dan David Prize for the field of History and Memory.

The Role of Historians at Trial

Location W426, Level 4, Forgan Smith
Chair Deborah Mayersen; University of Wollongong
The Historian at Trial
Authors Rebecca Gidley, Australian National University
Abstract Justice after mass atrocities does not always come quickly, or at all. One consequence of such a delay is that a history of the period of mass atrocity has already been written – by historians and, in different ways, by survivors. In this paper I consider the ways that historians have interacted with trials for mass atrocity crimes. I first discuss the 1990s trials in France of Vichy officials Paul Touvier and Maurice Papon as the role of historians in these trials has been well studied and different historians have discussed their decisions to testify, or not. I then turn to consider two lesser-studied tribunals currently operating in Asia to try crimes of the 1970s: the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC), and the International Crimes Tribunal in Bangladesh. Prominent historians of Cambodia have been employed at the ECCC or testified before it and their familiarity with the available evidence has contributed to the ECCC’s investigations. In Bangladesh, on the other hand, whilst the testimony of academics has been used, some of these experts have later been censured for criticising aspects of the tribunal’s operation. I discuss why these differences have emerged and the risks and rewards of relying on the testimony of historians. This paper raises more fundamental questions about the claims of both historians and courts to truth, the standards of evidence each require, and the public role of the historian.
Biography Rebecca Gidley is a PhD candidate in the School of Culture, History and Language at the Australian National University. Her thesis is titled “Illiberal Transitional Justice: The Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia” which examines how and why transitional justice mechanisms are created, with a particular focus on Cambodia. Prior to ANU she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts (History) and a Bachelor of Science (Mathematics) from the University of Queensland. Her research interests include Southeast Asia, genocide studies, and modern political history.
A “Blueprint” for History? Prosecutors, Historians, and the Frankfurt Auschwitz Trial
Authors Mathew Turner, Deakin University
Abstract The Frankfurt Auschwitz trial began in Frankfurt am Main on 19 December 1963. The prosecution engaged historians to construct expert witness reports for the court, setting out the relevant historical background. By contrast, the prosecution’s indictment outlined the defendants’ alleged crimes and historical background specific to these offenses. Taken together, the prosecution’s indictment and historians’ written reports constitute the historical representation of genocide prosecution wished to convey to the court, and to the West German public. The historians’ reports were transformed into the best-selling book Anatomie des SS-Staates, published in 1965. The aim of this paper is to challenge Rebecca Wittmann’s claim that this post-trial book “had as its blueprint the Auschwitz Trial indictment.” Through examination of a pre-trial meeting between prosecutors that took place in November 1962 – an event overlooked by Wittmann – this paper argues that not only were the indictment and historians’ reports constructed separately, they present fundamentally different historical narratives and representations of genocide. Contemporaneous newspaper articles reveal, moreover, that historians’ testimony from the witness box frequently conflicted with the historical assertions of the indictment. The historians’ original expert reports, the indictment (sourced from the Fritz-Bauer-Institut), and interviews with two trial prosecutors (Gerhard Wiese and Johannes Warlo) offer means to compare and contrast the forms of history produced by lawyers and historians. The paper contends that the prosecution’s indictment, though flawed, constituted the most detailed and historiographically sound representation of Auschwitz written up to that point.
Biography Dr Mathew Turner is an academic historian in the School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Education, at Deakin University, Australia. He has taught various undergraduate units including the Holocaust and Global Twentieth Century History. He is also a member of the University’s Contemporary Histories Research Group. A former scholarship holder and current alumni of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), Dr Turner’s main research interests are contemporary German history and historiography, German antisemitism and the Holocaust, the historian as expert witness, and history and law. Dr Turner completed his PhD in June 2016. Dr Turner has presented at international conferences, including the 2016 German Studies Association Annual Conference in San Diego, and the 2014 Sechstes Doktoranden-Seminar des Fritz Bauer Instituts in Frankfurt. Dr Turner recently signed a book deal with I.B.Tauris for his work titled Historians at the Frankfurt Auschwitz Trial: their Role as Expert Witnesses, scheduled for publication in December 2017.

Digital Art Installation

Location Moot Court W237, Level 2, Forgan Smith
Beyond Genocide: Silent Power Point Exhibition
Authors Amy Fagin, Beyond Genocide Centre for Prevention
Abstract This independent looping silent power point will provide an introduction to the series “Beyond Genocide”, a series of illuminated manuscripts narrating a documentary treatise of genocides and mass atrocity crimes around the globe. The power point includes overview of the series and case by case visual art experience of the individual compositions within the series. Details and meanings discovered by the artist will be presented as a visual “docent” by describing what and how certain details support the historical basis of the atrocity crime, and narrate the composition of the illumination. All completed illuminations from the emerging series will be included. Considerations regarding narratives of history and the “truths” that they represent are contextualized for individual observation and contemplation. This presentation creates a deeply contemplative experience on the trajectory and legacy of mass atrocity across time and space. The session loops independently and is recommended to be hosted in a darkened “screening room” where individuals can enter or leave independently. Hours of operation can be outlined in the schedule.
Biography Amy Fagin is a U.S. based visual artist specializing in the traditional art form of manuscript illumination. Her body of work represents a meta-modernist approach to the materials, techniques and theoretical principals used in manuscript illumination for contemporary consideration. She is author of Beyond Genocide; an emerging series of illuminations narrating a visual documentary arts perspective on global incidents of genocide and mass violence. Ms. Fagin is also an independent scholar in genocide studies and conducts research / seminars, lectures, workshops and advisory work on global initiatives of memory and memorialization through individual and collective arts expression and the museum experience. She has contributed expertise in international consultative events and currently serves on the advisory board of the International Association of Genocide Scholars. She regularly publishes editorials, reviews and essays on genocide, memory, memorialization, art and 21st century expression and education.