IAGS2017 Session 8

Day 3, 12 July 0900-1030 Session 8

Genocide Prevention V

Location W332, Level 3, Forgan Smith
Chair Deborah Mayersen; University of Wollongong
Organising Governmental Structures for Atrocity Prevention
Authors Tibi Galis, Auschwitz Institute for Peace and Reconciliation
Abstract This paper will focus on a new tactic for prevention, the development of government official networks and support systems. I shall analyze these organizational tools that incentivize the development of mass atrocity prevention policy based on my work at the Auschwitz Institute for Peace and Reconciliation and based on my participation in the creation of the Latin American Network for Genocide and Mass Atrocity Prevention. I shall focus on understanding the successes and the limits of working with this tool by unpacking the paradigm shift that it provokes in terms of government officials' understanding of what role prevention plays within their professional behavior. I shall emphasize the connection of the prevention agenda to existing frameworks of bureaucratic activity (human rights policy, civilian protection policy etc) and analyze the elements of bureaucratic network organization (periodic review, continuing education, bilateral and multilateral project development etc) and their relation to preventive policy development. I shall do this by collecting data directly from the members of the Latin American Network for Genocide and Mass Atrocity Prevention, of the Global Responsibility to Protect Focal Points Network and of the National Committees on the Prevention of Genocide within the Great Lakes Region. I am looking forward to bringing a contribution to this area of the study atrocity prevention, given the extremely limited literature on bureaucratic processes self-labeled as dedicated to atrocity prevention.
Biography Dr. Galis has been the Executive Director of AIPR since 2006. Born and raised in Romania, he earned his B.A. in Law and Political Science from Babes-Bolyai University, in Cluj-Napoca. He received an M.A. in International Politics and Political Development from the University of Manchester, and earned a Ph.D. from the Strassler Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies at Clark University, with a focus on transitional justice. Previously Galis worked as an Associate Researcher for the UK Parliament, helping develop the UK position on the UN Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide, and as rapporteur for the Swedish government at the 2004 Stockholm International Forum on the Prevention of Genocide.
Preventing Genocide: The Policy Value of Atrocity Forecasting with Quantitative Models
Authors Sascha Nanlohy, University of Sydney
Benjamin Goldsmith, University of Sydney
Charles Butcher, Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Abstract Genocide is not an inevitable feature of the modern world. Nor, when the killing has started, is the process inexorable. It is time to integrate quantitative atrocity forecasting more directly and systematically into the foreign policy processes of major actors seeking to prevent genocide and other atrocities. This paper explores the utility of relatively reliable early warning forecasts. We examine the emerging ability of social scientists to produce such forecasts, with case studies to illustrate our points. Most quantitative forecasting models of political violence take an out-of-sample testing approach to assessing forecasting accuracy, helping to guard against implicit bias in model construction, and overfitting to known data. In our view, such models have utility when they produce actual future forecasts that can be integrated into the actions of non-governmental and/or governmental actors to prevent or reduce deadly violence. Current levels of accuracy should not be exaggerated, but such models are reliable to the extent that cases they claim have high risk in the future actually turn out, retrospectively and in the aggregate, to be the most likely sites of genocide. Forecasts, such as those made by our group, the Atrocity Forecasting Project (AFP), can warn where there are, and importantly where there are not, high risks of targeted mass killings. Resources can be deployed appropriately with time to act. What is lacking is a systematic coordinated approach to those highest risk states. This approach involves six stages: Identification, Monitoring, Diplomacy, Prevention, Mitigation, Prosecution.
Biography Sascha Nanlohy is a Research Associate with Atrocity Forecasting Project, Department of Government and International Relations at the University of Sydney. A graduate of the University of Sydney he holds a Masters in Peace and Conflict Studies and a Bachelor of Arts, he was awarded the University of Sydney 2012 Cheryl Minks Prize for Peace and Conflict Studies for his dissertation on the prevention of mass atrocities in Kenya’s Post Election Violence. For four years he ran a volunteer based advocacy organisation, A Billion Little Stones that focused on Australian lobbying for the prevention of genocide in Sudan. He has previously worked with UK NGO Peace Direct and the All Party Parliamentary Group for Sudan and South Sudan in the British Parliament.

Benjamin E. Goldsmith is Associate Professor and Australian Research Council Future Fellow in the Department of Government and International Relations at the University of Sydney. His research and teaching are in the areas of international security, international public opinion, and atrocity forecasting. He leads the Atrocity Forecasting Project at the University of Sydney, and has published in journals including Comparative Political Studies, European Journal of International Relations, Journal of Conflict Resolution, Journal of Peace Research, Journal of Politics and World Politics.

Charles Butcher is an Associate Professor Department of Sociology and Political Science Department of Language and Literature at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Dr Butcher received his PhD from the University of Sydney in 2011. His thesis examined the relationship between small arms and fighting over economic resources in African civil wars from 1960-2008. His present research focuses on the onset and dynamics of civil resistance movements, group participation in violent and nonviolent conflict, genocide forecasting and pre-colonial state systems.
Implementing the ‘Peace-Continuum’: An Assessment of the Emerging UN Reform Agenda
Authors Cecilia Jacob, Australian National University
Abstract In his 2016 Vision Statement, United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres made a commitment to the ‘centrality of prevention’ in the organisation alongside the development of a ‘comprehensive, modern and effective operational peace architecture,’ to respond to each stage of the conflict-cycle (‘peace continuum’). Recent reviews on UN peacekeeping, peacebuilding and women, peace and security have emphasised the need for more integrated strategies to respond to conflict, and the need to prioritise political solutions to crises. Theoretically, this new paradigm should encourage greater coordination of information management and responsiveness to emerging crises that will result in more effective prevention of civilian deaths from violence conflict and atrocity crimes. This paper will present an overview of the emerging ‘peace continuum’ paradigm that is shaping current conflict management reform efforts within the UN, and assess the operationalisation of protection missions in South Sudan and the Central African Republic to understand how this paradigm is being implemented in practice.
Biography Cecilia Jacob is a Research Fellow and Director of Studies in the Department of International Relations, Coral Bell School of Asia Pacific Affairs, at the ANU. Her work focuses on civilian protection, internal conflict and political violence in South and Southeast Asia, and international norms of sovereign responsibility and protection. Her books include Child Security in Asia: the Impact of Armed Conflict and Cambodia and Myanmar (Routledge, 2014) and (edited with Alistair D. B. Cook) Civilian Protection in the Twenty-First Century: Governance and Responsibility in a Fragmented World (Oxford University Press, 2016).

Genocide of the Yazidi

Location W349, Level 3, Forgan Smith
Chair JoAnn DiGeorgio-Lutz; Texas A&M University at Galveston
Defying Genocide: Acts of Resistance by Armenian and Yazidi Women
Authors Nikki Marczak, Australian Institute for Holocaust and Genocide Studies
Abstract There are significant parallels between women’s forms of resistance during the Armenian Genocide one hundred years ago, and the current genocide of Yazidis by ISIS. Collective memory of resistance during genocide tends to focus on acts of military defence, which present men’s experience as ‘universal’, and simultaneously relegate women’s forms of resistance to the sidelines, rendering them invisible or unimportant. Survivor testimonies from both Armenian and Yazidi women highlight countless examples of cultural and spiritual resistance (similar to Holocaust scholar Yehuda Bauer’s concept of Amidah, or ‘standing up against’). These include, for example, clandestine cultural and religious maintenance such as speaking their own language or practising traditional customs, despite the risk of severe punishment, even death. Resistance also manifests in women banding together to protect one another (such as rubbing mud on the faces of young women to avoid abduction and rape) or to sustain each other (for example, by tying scraps of clothing together to fetch water from wells, helping other women in childbirth, or attempting escape collectively). Abduction and forced conversion of women and girls are structural components of these two genocides. Refusing to allow the destruction of their identities, and secretly or overtly defying their oppressors, are therefore significant acts of resistance. This paper aligns with the conference themes by bringing women’s cultural and spiritual resistance out of the shadows, deepening our understanding of victim responses to genocide, and applying analysis of a century-old case to a current one, with a view towards future genocide prevention.
Biography Nikki Marczak M.A. is a researcher with the Australian Institute for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Australian Director of peak Yazidi organisation, Yazda, and advisor to UN Ambassador for the Dignity of Survivors of Human Trafficking, Nadia Murad. With a background in research on the Armenian Genocide and the specific experiences of women during genocide, Nikki was the keynote speaker at the 100 Year Armenian Genocide Commemoration in Melbourne, and 2016 Lemkin Scholar with the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute in Yerevan. Her work has been published by various policy think-tanks and media outlets including the Lowy Institute and SBS, as well as academic journal, Genocide Studies and Prevention. Nikki’s comparative analysis of the enslavement of Armenian and Yazidi women is included in a Palgrave publication, A Gendered Lens for Genocide Prevention, and she is currently co-editing a compilation of essays for the fifth volume in the AIHGS series, Genocide Perspectives.
Humanitarian Intervention at Mt. Sinjar, Iraq: A Complex Adaptive Systems Analysis
Authors Trevor C. Jones, Lynx Global Intelligence
Abstract Late in the summer of 2014, tens of thousands of persecuted minorities fled a genocidal onslaught and took refuge on Mt. Sinjar in Iraq. Stranded by indiscriminate ISIS mortar fire, the group known as the Yezidi faced dehydration and exposure to extreme temperatures on the barren mountain. Ten days later most the trapped Yezidi individuals had escaped through a protected corridor on the ground. This paper analyzes the international response to the Complex Emergency (CE) through network analysis as an alternative to existing civil-military frameworks. Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) analysis is used to promote four nodal points of analysis in the international community, instead of two which exist in traditional civil-military frameworks. The author posits that each node has a specific function in preventing genocide. These functions include the humanitarian communities’ ability to mobilize both the public and foreign policy elites inside nations that can effectively respond to murderous military forces. Unless the political will to stop genocide is present inside capable nations, the responsibility will defuse among the other nodes in the network, allowing genocidal acts to continue. CAS is a nascent method, but shows promise in understanding the functions of multiple actors when confronting Complex Emergencies.
Biography Trevor C. Jones is a genocide and human security scholar from Denver, Colorado in the United States. His work, “Humanitarian Intervention at Mt. Sinjar, Iraq: A Complex Adaptive System Analysis” seeks to identify meaningful ways to analyze genocide using networked models. Mr. Jones’ research allowed him to document several primary source interviews with Yezidi men and women, victims of genocidal acts by ISIS since 2013. His work was presented to the US State Department in 2015. In early 2016 Mr. Jones co-founded Lynx Global Intelligence, a Denver-based firm that leverages private sector and government actors to ensure human security, worldwide. Mr. Jones holds a B.A. in Psychology from Tulane University in New Orleans and an M.A. in International Security from the Josef Korbel School of International Studies in Denver, CO.

Film and Genocide II

Location W431, Level 4, Forgan Smith
Chair Kirril Shields; University of Queensland
The Kapo on Film: Tragic Perpetrators and Imperfect Victims
Authors Mark Drumbl, Transnational Law Institute, Washington and Lee University
Abstract The Nazis compelled, enlisted, and ‘promoted’ detainees into the administration of the labor and death camps. These detainees were called Kapos. The Kapos constitute a particularly contested element of Holocaust remembrance. Some Kapos deployed their situational authority to ease the conditions of other prisoners, while others acted cruelly and committed abuses. This project explores treatment of the Kapo on film. This paper considers two films: Kapò (1959 dir. Pontecorvo (Italy)) and Kapo (2000 dir. Setton (Israel)), and additionally one stage play, Kapo in Jerusalem (2013 dir. Lerner (Israel)) which derives from a film of the same title (2014 dir. Barbash (Israel)). While these works do not explicitly consider international criminal justice, they vivify themes of agency, blame, survival, shame, sacrifice, and recrimination with which law grapples. These two films vary in genre: a pulpy feature fiction film (Kapò (1959)) and a controversially-received documentary reportage (Kapo 2000); the stageplay (Kapo in Jerusalem), itself derivative of a film of the same title, is a fictional (and gripping) drama drawn from the experiences of an actual Auschwitz Kapo. This paper interrogates how these creative works portray victim-perpetrator circularity; how they contribute to history, memory, and recollection; and didactically how they explain ‘what happened,’ ‘why,’ and ‘what to do now’. This paper additionally contrasts cinematographic accounts and criminal law’s accounts, in particular, those in Israel’s Kapo trials.
Biography Mark A. Drumbl is the Class of 1975 Alumni Professor at Washington & Lee University, School of Law, where he also serves as Director of the Transnational Law Institute. He has held visiting appointments on several law faculties, including Oxford University, Université de Paris II (Panthéon-Assas), University of Melbourne, Masaryk University, University of Sydney, Vanderbilt University, Free University of Amsterdam, University of Ottawa and Trinity College-Dublin. His book, Atrocity, Punishment, and International Law (Cambridge University Press, 2007) has won commendations from the International Association of Criminal Law (U.S. national section) and the American Society of International Law. In 2012, he published Reimagining Child Soldiers in International Law and Policy (Oxford University Press), which has been widely reviewed and critically acclaimed.
The Polish and Their Shifting Representations in the Holocaust Genre
Authors Theresa McMackin, Stockton University
Abstract This article addresses the changing role of characters and subjects of Polish identity in Holocaust films. It proposes that Polish characters and their representations in film has changed in recent years to reflect the emergence of evidence that, contrary to what was previously believed, Polish civilians were often both victim and perpetrator during the Nazi-occupation. Besides discussing the example of Polish character representation in films over the span of the genre, this article argues that the inclusion of characters that reflect this chapter of Poland’s history aids in the nation coming to terms with this violence and perpetration. While the article focuses on the negative representations of Poles in film, it will also highlight positive subjects that have emerged as a result of research and interest in Poland during the Nazi-occupation. Overall, this article sets out to outline the shifting focus on the Polish nationality in Holocaust films and what role that focus has played in the nation’s sentiments towards its troubled past.
Biography Theresa Margaret McMackin is a senior at Stockton University, where she is majoring in historical studies and minoring in Holocaust and Genocide studies and creative writing. Her area of focus is the Holocaust in Poland and Greece, with particular focus paid to Warsaw and Rhodes where she has visited and conducted research in the latter location. She has previously presented at the New Jersey Historical Commissions’ 2016 Forum on the Stockton University Writing as Witness Holocaust Memoir Project and as a guest student lecturer at a Stockton satellite campus on the Warsaw Ghetto. She is Editor-in-Chief of The Argo, Stockton University’s school newspaper; a Non-Voting Student Liaison in the Student Affairs Committee in Faculty Senate; President of Stockton University’s History Club; Vice President of S.T.A.N.D; Stockton’s student-led anti-Genocide coalition; and Treasurer of Stockton University Model United Nations. She will be graduating in May 2017, and upon graduation she plans on obtaining her doctoral degree in History.

Cambodian Genocide Case Study: Cambodian Association of Greater Philadelphia Oral History

Location W426, Level 4, Forgan Smith
Chair Caroline Bennett; Victoria University of Wellington
Witness to Genocide - First-Generation Survivors
Authors Brenda Gaydosh, West Chester University of Pennsylvania
Abstract My panel paper will deal with CAGP’s first-generation survivors of the genocide, what they went through in the late 1970s, their journey to the Philadelphia area, how they raised their children given what they experienced in their homeland, how the genocide influenced their lives in America, and what they see as the legacy of the genocide for their people. Using the interviews from our oral history as well as secondary sources to help put the material in context, this paper will offer initial findings (beginnings of a long-term project) of the effect of the genocide on Cambodian-American first-generation survivors in the Cambodian community in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It will consider gender differences experienced by first-generation survivors as well as other issues that arise in our continuing interviews.
Biography I have been teaching at West Chester University of Pennsylvania for twelve years – courses in European history from the early modern era to the modern era as well as a graduate and undergraduate course in genocide. I have presented papers at many conferences in America and abroad, including the IAGS conferences in Sienna in 2013 and Yerevan in 2015. I studied at the International Institute for Genocide & Human Rights Studies in Toronto in 2013. In summer 2014, I traveled with a colleague and students to Rwanda. My students and I have begun working on an oral history for the Cambodian Association of Greater Philadelphia.
Bearing Witness to Genocide: The "1½" Generation Story
Authors Jenna Fagan, West Chester University of Pennsylvania
Abstract My paper will discuss the experience of children who survived the genocide or those born to survivors in the refugee camps. These children straddle a line between witnessing parts of the trauma, but not experiencing it fully. Thus, they carry the trauma of their parents, but experience the helplessness of the second generation born outside of Cambodia. These children would have had to mature as adults in this unusual and harrowing atmosphere. Scholars studied different generations of the Holocaust survivors and relatives, but the 1 ½ generation is still the least studied. Previous scholarship on refugees and child survivors will provide the framework through which I study the issues facing those that I interview. My work will focus on the inheritance of trauma through generations and the lingering connection, or lack thereof, to Cambodia.
Biography Jenna Fagan is a graduate student and graduate assistant at West Chester University in the Holocaust and Genocide Studies master’s program in West Chester, Pennsylvania. She attained her bachelor’s degree in Literature with an undergraduate certificate in Holocaust and Genocide studies in 2013. Current research projects include participating in a field studies project on the intersectionality of the Native American and Jewish experiences in the Western United States in addition to an oral history of the Cambodian Genocide. Jenna plans to pursue her PhD in History specializing in Modern European History beginning the Fall of 2018.
Growing up with Genocide: The 2nd Generation
Authors Gabrielle Flamm, West Chester University of Pennsylvania
Abstract My paper will compile the history and attitudes of second-generation Cambodian survivors living in the greater Philadelphia area. Through interviews with the children of survivors, I am looking to see if the genocide affected not only the immediate survivors, but also American children of survivors. The goal of our on-going project is to gain insight into a community overlooked for decades. The oral history will allow the community of survivors and their children to preserve the material we gain in hopes of using it to teach the younger generations. In addition, secondary source material from the second generation of Jewish survivors of the Holocaust will aid in noting comparisons of “second-generation” survivors of genocide. The more we learn about second-generation survivors, the more information we can provide to those who more recently have suffered from genocide.
Biography I am a second year undergraduate student at West Chester University and part of the Honors College. I am a history major with minors in both German and Holocaust and Genocide Studies. I have travelled all over the world, including South Africa, Germany, Poland, as well as many other countries. I have visited various concentration camps including Auschwitz and Terezin as well as visiting Robben Island and other sites of Apartheid. I have learned many life lessons from visiting these places and they have all strengthened my passions of remembering past genocides and preventing future ones from occurring. My goals for the future include furthering my studies in Holocaust and Genocide research and using these studies to further help in the prevention of Genocide. I hope one day to work for the United Nations in Human Rights.

Digital Art Installation

Location Moot Court W237, Level 2, Forgan Smith
Beyond Genocide: Silent Power Point Exhibition
Authors Amy Fagin, Beyond Genocide Centre for Prevention
Abstract This independent looping silent power point will provide an introduction to the series “Beyond Genocide”, a series of illuminated manuscripts narrating a documentary treatise of genocides and mass atrocity crimes around the globe. The power point includes overview of the series and case by case visual art experience of the individual compositions within the series. Details and meanings discovered by the artist will be presented as a visual “docent” by describing what and how certain details support the historical basis of the atrocity crime, and narrate the composition of the illumination. All completed illuminations from the emerging series will be included. Considerations regarding narratives of history and the “truths” that they represent are contextualized for individual observation and contemplation. This presentation creates a deeply contemplative experience on the trajectory and legacy of mass atrocity across time and space. The session loops independently and is recommended to be hosted in a darkened “screening room” where individuals can enter or leave independently. Hours of operation can be outlined in the schedule.
Biography Amy Fagin is a U.S. based visual artist specializing in the traditional art form of manuscript illumination. Her body of work represents a meta-modernist approach to the materials, techniques and theoretical principals used in manuscript illumination for contemporary consideration. She is author of Beyond Genocide; an emerging series of illuminations narrating a visual documentary arts perspective on global incidents of genocide and mass violence. Ms. Fagin is also an independent scholar in genocide studies and conducts research / seminars, lectures, workshops and advisory work on global initiatives of memory and memorialization through individual and collective arts expression and the museum experience. She has contributed expertise in international consultative events and currently serves on the advisory board of the International Association of Genocide Scholars. She regularly publishes editorials, reviews and essays on genocide, memory, memorialization, art and 21st century expression and education.