IAGS2017 Session 9

Day 3, 12 July 1100-1230 Session 9

Implementing the Responsibility to Protect: Future Challenges

Location W332, Level 3, Forgan Smith
Chair Alex Bellamy; University of Queensland
China, Syria and the Politics of Atrocities Prevention
Authors Sarah Teitt, University of Queensland
Abstract In his first address to the Security Council as the UN Secretary-General, in January 2017 Antonio Guterres lamented that mistrust in each other’s motives and concerns over sovereignty have led to too many lost opportunities to prevent conflict and translate early warning into early life-saving action. Drawing on Chinese texts and interviews with over forty Chinese officials and leading Middle East analysts, this paper examines the dominant ideas and perceptions which informed China’s resistance to efforts led by Western governments for more decisive UN action to curtail atrocities in Syria from 2011-2015. The paper concludes by analysing how insight into the misgivings at the heart of China’s Syria policy may assist in the Secretary-General’s efforts to improve trust within the Security Council, and further the goal of preventing atrocities and building and sustaining peace.
Biography Dr. Sarah Teitt is Deputy Director and Researcher at the Asia Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect in the School of Political Science and International Studies, University of Queensland. Sarah has nearly a decade of experience in delivering training, dialogue and education programs on mass atrocities prevention for government, civil society and academic institutions in the Asia Pacific region. Her research focuses on China’s R2P policy, and gender and atrocity prevention. Sarah spearheaded the establishment of the Annual Australia-China Dialogue on R2P in 2014, and is presently working on a book manuscript on China and the Responsibility to Protect agenda.
Implementing Protections for Internally Displaced Persons: The Gulf between Legal and Physical Protection
Authors Phil Orchard, University of Queensland
Abstract While the protection of internally displaced persons (IDPs) has become an important objective of the United Nations over the past twenty-five years, protection in this case has been conceptually as having primarily a legal basis, akin to the protections provided to refugees through the 1951 Refugee Convention or to civilians through the Geneva Conventions. Further, as IDPs remain within their own state, it is widely accepted that their state bears the primary responsibility towards them, including to protect them from atrocity crimes. Yet IDPs at the global level are not directly protected by international law, but rather by the non-binding Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement. While these Principles have been recognized at the international level, and brought into hard law at the regional level (through the African Union’s Kampala Convention) and into domestic legislation, they have neither an international organization monitoring their implementation nor universal acceptance by states. This paper will examine the implementation dilemmas created both by the need to provide IDPs with protection in situations when the state may be unable to provide such protection or even directly targeting them and by operating within an international regime which prioritizes legal aspects of protection.
Biography Dr Phil Orchard is a Senior Lecturer in International Relations and Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Queensland, and the Research Director of the Asia-Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect. His research focuses on international efforts to provide legal and institutional protections to forced migrants and war-affected civilians. He is the author of A Right to Flee: Refugees, States, and the Construction of International Cooperation (Cambridge University Press, 2014), which won the 2016 International Studies Association Ethnicity, Nationalism, and Migration Studies Section Distinguished Book Award, and the forthcoming book Protecting the Internally Displaced: Rhetoric and Reality (Routledge, 2017). He is also the co-editor, with Alexander Betts, of Implementation and World Politics: How International Norms Change Practice (Oxford University Press, 2014).
R2P in a Time of Trump
Authors Alex Bellamy, University of Queensland
Abstract The election of Donald Trump as US President caps off a bad year that has also seen Brexit, the murder of Jo Cox, the rise of racism at home, and violence abroad. There is no doubt that a global storm has erupted that threatens, years of hard won progress on human progress. There is a clear sense that for those of us interested in advancing the cause of human protection, 2016 has not been a good year. In fact, it has been a diabolical year. A robust sense of optimism is a job requirement in this field – it is a necessary article of faith that things can get better. But this has been a year to shake the faith of even the most optimistic. It seems that wherever we look, the forces that promote peace, conflict resolution and the constructive management of difference are on the retreat, whilst the forces of racism, xenophobia, nationalism, and what Martin Ceadal called ‘warism’ are everywhere on the march. In this talk, I want to try to make some sense of all this and ask – and maybe answer – 3 questions: Where are we today with respect to the responsibility to protect and human protection? What is the nature of the brewing storm? Can the storm be navigated and what will that take?
Biography Alex Bellamy is Director of the Asia Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect and Professor of Peace and Conflict Studies at The University of Queensland, Australia. He is also Non-Resident Senior Adviser at the International Peace Institute, New York and Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences in Australia. In 2008-9 he served as co-chair of the Council for Security Cooperation in the Asia Pacific Study Group on the Responsibility to Protect and he currently serves as Secretary of the High Level Advisory Panel on the Responsibility to Protect in Southeast Asia, chaired by Dr. Surin Pitsuwan. Dr Bellamy is co-editor of the Global Responsibility to Protect journal. His recent books include Responsibility to Protect: A Defence (Oxford, 2014), Providing Peacekeepers (with Paul D. Williams) (Oxford, 2013) and Massacres and Morality (Oxford, 2012). Professor Bellamy is Senior Adviser at the International Peace Institute, New York and Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences in Australia. His forthcoming book is "East Asia's Other Miracle: Explaining the Decline of Mass Atrocities" (Oxford University Press).

Cross-National Experiences of Genocide Memorialisation

Location W349, Level 3, Forgan Smith
Chair Daniel Feierstein; Universidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero
Nunca Más? Gender and Genocide Memorialization in Guatemala
Authors JoAnn DiGeorgio-Lutz, Texas A&M University at Galveston
Ella McIntire, Texas A&M University at Galveston
Abstract Following the signing of the Guatemalan Peace Accords in December 1996 ending the country’s 36-year civil war, the Commission for Historical Clarification (CEH) was formally established. Its purpose was to clarify human rights violations that occurred throughout the conflict as well as during the genocidal period between 1981 and 1983. One of the CEH’s recommendations called for the remembrance of the victims that included, inter alia, public memorialization in coordination with civil society organizations. Based on fieldwork in Guatemala, this paper employs a visual methodology framework coupled with feminist standpoint theory to examine memorials and the memorialization process in the context of gender. Indigenous Mayan women constitute an oppressed group relative to the State and Catholic Church. Through their participation in civil society organizations they struggle to break the bonds of patriarchy and define their individual and collective memory of the genocidal period. Genocide memorialization in Guatemala is both formal and informal consisting of murals, museums, shrines, and graffiti. The memorialization process engages women through testimonies and their participation in annual commemorative activities. In this memory landscape we are interested in women’s agency along three dimensions: (1) how women are represented in memorials—that is, which tropes of memory are used to define women’s experiences during the genocidal period; (2) women’s activism in promoting public memorials through their membership in various civil society organizations—particularly their efforts in creating the museum for historical memory--Casa de la Memoria; and (3) their participation in commemorative performance as part of genocidal remembrance.
Biography JoAnn DiGeorgio-Lutz is a professor of Political Science and department head at Texas A&M University at Galveston. She is the co-editor of Women and Genocide: Gendered Experiences of Violence, Survival, and Resistance. She is the recipient of two J. William Fulbright awards—one as a Fulbright Scholar to Jordan and the other as a Fulbright Specialist to Cambodia. Presently, she serves as the social sciences and humanities book review editor for Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal (GSP).

Ella McIntire is researching her thesis on the Guatemalan genocide in the department of Liberal Studies at Texas A&M at Galveston. Her research focus is on women’s agency in both memorials and the memorialization process. She was recently selected as a 2016-2017 ACES Fellow (Aggies Commit to Excellence in Scholarship) to conduct fieldwork in Guatemala.
Human Rights and Genocide Prevention in Latin America
Authors María Eugenia Carbone, Auschwitz Institute for Peace and Reconciliation; Latin American Network for Genocide and Mass Atrocity Prevention
Abstract The constant challenges faced by Latin America since the slow but progressive reinstallation of democracies in the 1980s have exposed the need for the construction of coalitions and joint strategies that strengthen democratic governance and reinforce the perception of associated institutions as a preventive shield against new threats. Analyzing the experience of the Southern Cone can be a valuable opportunity for learning more about these processes and examining how a focus on prevention (under the universally recognized sentiment of “Never Again”) was incorporated within the broader umbrella of human rights. This analysis will also reflect how the coordinated and robust actions originating from the Southern Cone were then included into a specific agenda devoted to genocide prevention as part of the creation of the Latin American Network for Genocide and Mass Atrocity Prevention in 2012. From a chronological perspective, this regionally coordinated work has allowed for the adoption of international human rights instruments to determine standards. It has also encouraged judicial cooperation in the search for, and punishment of, those responsible for perpetrating atrocities, and has supported the exchange of best practices related to memorialization. This paper will explore the ways in which memory, truth and justice, together with the larger fight against discrimination and specific policies protecting vulnerable groups, have increasingly functioned as pillars of human rights policies. Furthermore, they have served as robust tools for the consolidation of a regional focus on prevention, as was shown by the 2015 Declaration of the Latin American Network and in the Network’s regular working agenda.
Biography María Eugenia Carbone is a lawyer, specializing in Public International Law from the University of Buenos Aires (UBA). Before joining the Auschwitz Institute for Peace and Reconciliation in August 2013 she was the Coordinator of International Affairs of the Secretariat of Human Rights of the Ministry of Justice of Argentina. Previously, she served in the Argentinean Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ White Helmets Commission collaborating in the design and implementation of international humanitarian assistance projects. She is a university professor in International Relations at the National University of La Matanza (Argentina).
Memory, Testimony, and Pedagogy in Genocide Museums and Related Sites of Conscience
Authors Donna-Lee Frieze, Deakin University
Adam Muller, University of Manitoba
Steven Cooke, Deakin University
Abstract How visitors feel and are intended to feel by museums obviously affects what they are able to learn from these institutions’ representations of genocidal violence. Prominent in its ability to elicit, consolidate, and direct museumgoers’ feelings is eyewitness testimony, which plays a key role in sustaining exhibitions’ pedagogical (and thus transformative) power. Testimony provides those exposed to it with access to others’ inner lives, not just their life stories. It provides what Roger Simon has evocatively termed “counsel,” a concept we will unpack with specific reference to its utility in understanding museum pedagogies. Partly because it can be curated in ways intended to elicit specific affective responses, testimony assists in constructing broadly inclusive “communities of memory.” Within these sites of mnemonic affiliation and exchange, it becomes possible to acknowledge our continuousness with the past even as we admit its capacity to “unsettle” us. We will discuss the role played by video, oral, written, and digitally augmented testimony in eliciting and directing museum visitors’ feelings about the genocidal past. We will focus on the use of testimony in three sites of its curation – Canada’s Embodying Empahty project, Melbourne’s Jewish Holocaust Centre, and the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute. We will identify the kinds of feelings generally privileged in genocide museum exhibits; specify and theorize the curatorial investments in ideologies of moral and social transformation and weigh the merits of several new critical concepts and curatorial strategies reshaping our understanding of how we learn in the wake of the encounter between museumgoer, testimony, and traumatic experience.
Biography Donna is the editor and transcriber of Raphael Lemkin’s autobiography, Totally Unofficial (Yale University Press, 2013) and co-author with Steven Cooke of The Interior of Our Memories’: A History of Melbourne’s Jewish Holocaust Centre, (Hybrid, 2015). Donna is the past First Vice-President of the International Association of Genocide Scholars and a current member of the Advisory Board and a Board member for the Institute for the Study of Genocide, New York University. In September 2015, Donna was appointed by the Australian Government to the Academia Working Group of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA) for two years.

Adam is the editor of Concepts of Culture: Art, Politics, and Society (2005), as well as co-editor of Fighting Words and Images: Representing War Across the Disciplines (2012) and The Idea of a Human Rights Museum (2015). He is an interdisciplinary genocide scholar with a special interest in photographic representations of mass violence. In 2014 he curated Photrocity, an exhibition of never-before seen Soviet World War Two atrocity photographs, for which he also wrote the catalogue. He currently co-directs the SSHRC-funded Embodying Empathy project, which links survivors, scholars, and private-sector tech professionals in the creation of a virtual and immersive Canadian Indian Residential School.

Steven is a Cultural and Historical Geographer, with research interests that focus on the memorial landscapes of war and genocide. He is the Course Director for the Cultural Heritage and Museum Studies programs at Deakin University, and the co-convenor of the University’s Cultural Heritage Asia-Pacific Network. He is the author of The Sweetland Project; Remembering Gallipoli on the Shire of Nunawading (ASP, 2015) and co-author of The Interior of Our Memories’: A History of Melbourne’s Jewish Holocaust Centre, (Hybrid, 2015), with Donna-Lee Frieze.

Japanese Atrocities in the Second World War

Location W431, Level 4, Forgan Smith
Chair Robert Cribb; Australian National University
The Victimization of Okinawa: A Professor Involved in Structural Evil
Authors Akio Kimura, Kitami Institute of Technology
Abstract Wakaizumi Kei (1930-96) was a professor at Kyoto Sangyo University, but, at the same time, an official but undercover envoy, appointed by Prime Minister Sato Eisaku, to deal with the return of Okinawa from the United States to Japan. During WWII, Okinawa was the only place in Japan where the ground battle was fought, and a lot of civilians were killed in the battle or ordered to kill themselves under the Japanese military government’s “Do not dishonor yourself by being a POW” policy. After WWII, Okinawa was ruled by the U.S., which used the island as one large military base, especially during the Korean War and the Vietnam War. Even after its return to Japan in 1972, Okinawa still holds about 74 % of the entire area of U.S. military bases in Japan. Wakaizumi made the return of Okinawa’s sovereignty to Japan possible. But, in return, he ended up selling the island for the U.S. military purpose. In the Japan-U.S. military relationship, no matter how honest his personal intention was, Wakaizumi’s treatment of Okinawa constitutes structural evil. Despite his intellect as professor of international relations, Wakaizumi seems as thoughtless as Adolf Eichmann was in Hannah Arendt’s sense. What is different from Eichmann, however, is Wakaizumi’s remorse. Wakaizumi killed himself feeling responsible for the pain the Okinawans suffered. This study will address how thoughtless Wakaizumi was concerning the evil in which he was involved and why he should still be held thoughtless after his remorse.
Biography Akio Kimura is Professor at Kitami Institute of Technology. He received an M.A. from Sophia University (Tokyo) and another M.A. and a Ph.D. from Drew University (New Jersey). He is the author of Faulkner and Oe: The Self-Critical Imagination (University Press of America, 2007), and articles on Japanese and American literature, and on genocide, including “Genocide and the Modern Mind: Intention and Structure” (Journal of Genocide Research 5.3 [2003]).
Anti-Guerrilla Warfare and Genocidal Violence: Creating ‘uninhabitable zones’ in the Japanese Empire, 1937–1945
Authors Kelly Maddox, Daiwa Anglo-Japanese Foundation
Abstract This paper explores the radicalisation of Japanese anti-guerrilla strategy in Asia between 1937 and 1945. Like other imperial powers, the Japanese sometimes faced guerrilla-style resistance from local populations which proved exceptionally difficult to combat by conventional means. As such, the military adopted unconventional and brutal anti-guerrilla tactics which, at times, involved genocidal strategies of ‘wiping-out’ resistance through targeting civilian populations in areas deemed rife with guerrilla activity. Campaigns in occupied China and the Philippines, for instance, saw drastic escalations of violence when, after years of unsuccessful subjugation efforts, Japanese forces employed measures premised on annihilating resistance through eliminating local populations, destroying towns and villages and essentially making ‘uninhabitable’ those areas of strategic importance deemed to be ‘unruly’. The escalation in both cases was rooted in a complex and dynamic process of radicalisation which was influenced by a multitude of different factors. Drawing on the aforementioned cases, in this paper, I focus on the role of macro and meso level contextual factors in generating a sense of heightened insecurity among the Japanese leadership which in turn facilitated the embrace of extreme violence. In particular, I explore shifts in conditions on the ground in which commanders made decisions to adopt genocidal measures and contextualise these decisions within the wider geopolitical frame to show how more radical strategies came to be rationalised as necessary to the survival of Japan. In doing so, I hope to highlight the importance of geopolitical and international contexts in shaping the radicalisation of violence on the battlefield.
Biography Kelly Maddox was awarded her PhD, funded by the ESRC, from Lancaster University, United Kingdom in July 2016. Her PhD entitled ‘The Strong Devour the Weak: Tracing the Genocidal Dynamics of Violence in the Japanese Empire’, explored how and why extreme group-destructive methods became possible in the Japanese Empire, particularly in the absence of an overarching, specific intent to annihilate other Asian groups. As part of this project, she conducted research as a scholar-in-residence at the Library of Congress in 2014. She is currently undertaking intensive Japanese language training in Tokyo, generously funded by the Daiwa Anglo-Japanese Foundation, in order to improve her Japanese ability.

Transitional Justice in Rwanda

Location W426, Level 4, Forgan Smith
Chair Wendy Lambourne; University of Sydney
Memorializing Genocide within Rwanda
Authors Stephanie Wolfe, Weber State University
Michael Ballif, Weber State University
Abstract Following the 1994 genocide within Rwanda, the country has been transformed as it attempted to come to terms with its past. Among these transformations was the creation of a series of memorials to document, preserve, commemorate, and focus national attention on the concept of “never again.” Twenty-two years later, there are 265 official memorials and 113 private sites designated as genocide cemeteries within the country (which is slightly smaller than ½ of Tasmania). There are even more landmarks, commemoration stones, and private markers that dot the countryside; in addition to yearly commemorations at each memorial, and a national commemoration ceremony every five years. One intriguing aspect of genocide and memorialisation within the Rwandan context is how the establishment of these memorials, private remembrances, and other commemoration activities have contributed to the to the twin concepts of justice and prevention. This paper will explore the question of how these memorial sites and commemoration events contribute to transitional justice, specifically historical and symbolic justice frameworks outlined in Wolfe, 2014. The paper will be based on interviews with survivors, in addition to approximately 100 memorial site visits that occurred between 2011 and 2017. These interviews will help determine the importance of memorialisation to survivors and explore the idea that memorials can serve as a form of justice in the aftermath of atrocity. Finally, it will ask if memorialisation of atrocities can contribute to the prevention of future genocides within societies that have been marred by genocidal conflict.
Biography Stephanie Wolfe specializes in international politics and human rights, focusing on genocide, crimes against humanity and other atrocities. Her publications include The Politics of Reparations and Apologies (2013) on the aftermath of World War II atrocities; specifically the Holocaust and the Romani genocides, the Japanese American internment, and the Japanese ‘comfort women’ system; and the book chapter The Politics of Reparations and Apologies: Historical and Symbolic Justice within the Rwandan Context (2014). She is the co-editor of a forthcoming anthology of research on the genocide against Tutsi and author of a book chapter on memorials within Rwanda. Dr. Wolfe’s current forthcoming projects/publications center on the 1994 genocide within Rwanda. Dr. Wolfe serves as the Media and Communications Officer for the Executive Board of the International Association of Genocide Scholars (2015-2017).

Michael Ballif is a student researcher, currently attending Weber State University pursuant to achieving a degree in History. Michael has been recognized for his work in the field of history by receiving the Presidential Honors Scholarship, the highest academic award granted by Weber State University, as well as the Fawn Brodie Scholarship, the highest academic award granted by WSU's History Department. Michael is currently engaged in research for Never Again Rwanda in the area of memorialization of the 1994 genocide; in addition, he is conducting interviews as part of an oral history project aimed at cataloging and preserving the experiences of veterans and civilians of World War Two.
“We are judges now”: The Elected Lay Jurists of Rwanda’s Gacaca Courts
Authors Hollie Nyseth Brehm, The Ohio State University
Abstract In the aftermath of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, the Government of Rwanda created courts to hold hundreds of thousands of suspected génocidaires accountable. These gacaca courts were instituted in local communities, and each community elected lay jurists known as inyangamugayo to preside over them. While much scholarship has examined the gacaca courts, we know little about the 250,000 women and men who volunteered their time as inyangamugayo weekly between 2002 and 2012. Accordingly, this paper asks two interrelated questions: 1) How did the inyangamugayo understand accountability in the context of genocide, and 2) How has their involvement with the courts influenced their lives today? To address these questions, the paper analyzes 120 interviews with a randomly selected sample of inyangamugayo in four Rwandan sectors. Interviews reveal a high degree of professional commitment among inyangamugayo, illustrating that many saw their main duties as promoting reconciliation and accountability, which was often linked to deterrence. These duties exacted a heavy personal toll, however, due to the demanding nature of the uncompensated work. Unlike judges in many other parts of the world, the inyangamugayo continued to live and work in extremely close proximity to those they sentenced—and almost every one of those neighbors had been deeply touched by the genocide, the justice system response, and their work as judges. This fact alongside their marginal economic circumstances placed the inyangamugayo in an especially vulnerable position, raising questions that must be considered when local courts are used to hold perpetrators of genocide accountable.
Biography Hollie Nyseth Brehm is as Assistant Professor of Sociology at The Ohio State University. Her current research examines subnational patterns of violence during genocide, triggers of mass killing, and transitional justice in the aftermath of atrocity. Her recent scholarship has appeared or is forthcoming in Criminology, the American Journal of Sociology, Social Problems, Gender & Society, American Behavioral Scientist, Annual Review of Law and Social Science, the Journal of Genocide Research, Genocide Studies and Prevention, and is currently funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation. At Ohio State, she teaches courses on violence, conflict, global crime, and terrorism; and she is a core member of I-Activism and the Center for Victims of Torture.
“I wanted them to be punished or at least ask us for forgiveness": Justice Needs of Rwandan Survivors of Sexual-violence and their Experiences with Gacaca
Authors Judith Herrmann, James Cook University
Abstract This presentation discusses the findings of research that investigates the needs of female survivors of conflict-related (in some cases genocidal) sexual violence and explores the survivors’ experiences with transitional justice processes. The research focuses on the needs and experiences of Rwandan women who were subjected to sexual violence during the genocide against the Tutsi in 1994 and who raised their case at one of Rwanda’s local gacaca courts. The gacaca court system was established in 2001 by the Rwandan government to deal with genocide-related crimes with the intent to reveal the truth, end the ‘culture of impunity’ and promote both justice and reconciliation. The research was informed by phenomenological and feminist methodologies, utilised a qualitative approach and is based on semi-structured interviews with 23 Rwandan women, conducted in 2015/2016. The interviews focused on investigating the women’s motivations to participate in gacaca and their experiences with the process. The main themes that emerged during these interviews centred around interview participants’ perspectives on perpetrator accountability and punishment, justice, truth telling and truth finding, reconciliation, forgiveness, reparations as well as obstacles and support for the women to reconnect with their families and communities. The interviews also provided detailed insight into some unique procedural features of gacaca. The presentation will discuss the main themes and unique findings of the research.
Biography Judith is the Director of the Conflict Management and Resolution program at James Cook University (JCU) and also teaches as a lecturer in the program. She has an honours degree in Economics (University of Applied Science Gelsenkirchen, Germany) and holds a Master of Conflict and Dispute Resolution (JCU, Townsville). Judith is a PhD candidate analysing the experiences of female survivors of conflict-related sexual violence with transitional justice processes. In 2015/ 2016, Judith interviewed Rwandan women who survived sexual violence during the genocide against the Tutsi and who raised their case at one of Rwanda’s local gacaca courts dealing with genocide-related crimes. Judith is also a nationally accredited mediator, conflict coach and facilitator with experience in cross-cultural conflict resolution. In 2011, Judith spent several months with International Rescue Committee in the Central African Republic evaluating informal conflict resolution processes of village chiefs and how they interact with the formal justice system.

Digital Art Installation

Location Moot Court W237, Level 2, Forgan Smith
Beyond Genocide: Silent Power Point Exhibition
Authors Amy Fagin, Beyond Genocide Centre for Prevention
Abstract This independent looping silent power point will provide an introduction to the series “Beyond Genocide”, a series of illuminated manuscripts narrating a documentary treatise of genocides and mass atrocity crimes around the globe. The power point includes overview of the series and case by case visual art experience of the individual compositions within the series. Details and meanings discovered by the artist will be presented as a visual “docent” by describing what and how certain details support the historical basis of the atrocity crime, and narrate the composition of the illumination. All completed illuminations from the emerging series will be included. Considerations regarding narratives of history and the “truths” that they represent are contextualized for individual observation and contemplation. This presentation creates a deeply contemplative experience on the trajectory and legacy of mass atrocity across time and space. The session loops independently and is recommended to be hosted in a darkened “screening room” where individuals can enter or leave independently. Hours of operation can be outlined in the schedule.
Biography Amy Fagin is a U.S. based visual artist specializing in the traditional art form of manuscript illumination. Her body of work represents a meta-modernist approach to the materials, techniques and theoretical principals used in manuscript illumination for contemporary consideration. She is author of Beyond Genocide; an emerging series of illuminations narrating a visual documentary arts perspective on global incidents of genocide and mass violence. Ms. Fagin is also an independent scholar in genocide studies and conducts research / seminars, lectures, workshops and advisory work on global initiatives of memory and memorialization through individual and collective arts expression and the museum experience. She has contributed expertise in international consultative events and currently serves on the advisory board of the International Association of Genocide Scholars. She regularly publishes editorials, reviews and essays on genocide, memory, memorialization, art and 21st century expression and education.