Gloria Atiba Davies

Gloria Atiba Davies studied at the University of London and graduated with a Bachelor of Law (LLB Hons) degree. She then pursued the professional course at the Council of Legal Education in London after which she was called to the Bar of England and Wales by the Honourable Society of Grays Inn. After completing her studies, she returned to Sierra Leone, joined the government legal department and was assigned to the Division of Public Prosecution.

She worked her way up the ladder, interviewing victims and witnesses, drafting legal documents, conducting litigation in the High Court, the Court of Appeal and Supreme Court. She excelled as a criminal prosecutor and in 1994, was the most senior prosecutor in Sierra Leone, supervising prosecutions in the whole country, preparing pleadings and arguing criminal cases and appeals. She was also a member of the Task Force on Women and Children in Sierra Leone and the Legal Adviser to the Medical and Dental Council.

During the period 1999-2000, she worked in the Attorney General’s Chambers in Gambia first as the Deputy Director of Public Prosecutions and then as Acting Director of Public Prosecutions. She is currently Head of Gender and Children’s Unit, (at the International Criminal Court) which focuses on sexual and gender crimes and crimes against and affecting children, and also deals with issues relating to the well-being of witnesses especially victims of sexual violence and children who the OTP interacts with.

Prof. Alexander Bellamy

Alex Bellamy Alex Bellamy is Director of the Asia Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect and Professor of Peace and Conflict Studies at The University of Queensland, Australia. He is also Non-Resident Senior Adviser at the International Peace Institute, New York and Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences in Australia. In 2008-9 he served as co-chair of the Council for Security Cooperation in the Asia Pacific Study Group on the Responsibility to Protect and he currently serves as Secretary of the High Level Advisory Panel on the Responsibility to Protect in Southeast Asia, chaired by Dr. Surin Pitsuwan.

Dr Bellamy is co-editor of the Global Responsibility to Protect journal. His recent books include Responsibility to Protect: A Defence (Oxford, 2014), Providing Peacekeepers (with Paul D. Williams) (Oxford, 2013) and Massacres and Morality (Oxford, 2012).

Professor Bellamy is Senior Adviser at the International Peace Institute, New York and Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences in Australia. His forthcoming book is "East Asia's Other Miracle: Explaining the Decline of Mass Atrocities" (Oxford University Press).

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Prof. Robert Cribb

Prof. Robert Cribb

Professor Robert Cribb is a historian of modern Indonesia, with wider interests in other parts of Asia. He completed his BA at the University of Queensland and his PhD at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London. He has held positions at Griffith University, the Netherlands Institute of Advanced Study, the University of Queensland and the Nordic Institute of Asian Studies. His research focusses on the intersection between mass violence and national and political identities. He also writes on environmental politics and historical geography. His latest book, Japanese War Criminals: The Politics of Justice After the Second World War [with Sandra Wilson, Beatrice Trefalt, and Dean Aszkielowicz] will appear in 2017 with Columbia University Press.

Prof. Lyndall Ryan

Prof. Lyndall Ryan

Lyndall Ryan is Conjoint Research Professor in the Centre for the History of Violence at the University of Newcastle, Australia.  Her first book on the Tasmanian Aborigines was published in 1981, with an updated second edition in 1996.  With the title, Aboriginal Tasmanians, the key argument was that the Tasmanian Aborigines had not died out in 1876 or at any other period in history.  In 2002, she was a key target in the Aboriginal history wars which claimed that she had invented frontier massacres of Tasmanian Aborigines during the Black War of the 1820s. Re-reading the sources, she found that the Tasmanian Aborigines were more likely killed in mass killings of five or more, than in ones and twos.

Since then she has focussed on the new field of massacre studies with a special interest in the study of frontier massacre in colonial settler societies. Her most recent books include Tasmanian Aborigines A History since 1803 (2012), and the co-edited collection with Philip G. Dwyer, Theatres of Violence Massacre, Mass Killing and Atrocity throughout History (2012).  She currently holds two Australian Research Council (ARC) Discovery Grants: (i) frontier violence in Australia 1788-1960 which will include a digital map of Aboriginal massacre sites in eastern Australia; and (ii) violence and intimacy in settler societies on the Anglo-Pacific rim 1830-1930.   She is also completing a comparative study of colonial frontier violence in old and new empires 1780-1830, with Philip Dwyer, Barbara Mann and Nigel Penn.

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Keynote abstract

The trouble with genocide in Tasmania: a review of recent debates

In 2005, Ann Curthoys published a ground breaking article on Raphael Lemkin’s chapter on Tasmania in his unfinished history of genocide where he claimed that genocide best described the process that led to the virtual extinction of the Tasmanian Aboriginal people.  And although Lemkin was the first to use the word, ‘genocide’, he was simply following in the footsteps of illustrious predecessors such as James Bonwick in 1870, Mark Twain and HG Wells at the end of 19th century and Clive Turnbull in 1948 who each used the word ‘extermination’ to describe the process of ‘extinction’.    

Today the terms, ‘Tasmanian Aborigines’, ‘genocide’, ‘extermination’ and ‘extinction’ are so intertwined that they appear to form a symbiotic relationship, whereby none can exist without the others. The relationship is deeply problematic for some historians who argue that genocide is simply the obverse of the discourse of extinction that was deployed by the proponents of scientific racism for more than one hundred years to justify the virtual disappearance of the Aboriginal people of Tasmania.

This paper untangles the historiographical debate about genocide in Tasmania since 2005 by locating it within the context of British imperial history. In taking this approach the paper it will generate a wider, more critical engagement with the reality of Tasmanian colonial history at a time when the discourse of humanitarianism dominated the British imperial agenda of expansion and conquest.

William Smith AM

William Smith AM
William Smith AM

William Smith is the Deputy Co-Prosecutor of the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC). The ECCC is mandated to bring to trial senior leaders of Democratic Kampuchea and those most responsible for crimes committed under the Khmer Rouge regime between 1975 and 1979. He has held this position since the court was established in 2006. For the preceding 11 years, William worked as a trial attorney and legal officer at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY). In 2000, William was seconded to the UN Transitional Authority in East Timor as the Acting District Administrator of Viqueque District. His work has taken him all over the world, including to the Balkans, Rwanda, Senegal and Northern Ireland. He was awarded a Member of the Order of Australia (AM) for significant service to the law, particularly through international justice tribunals and human rights organizations.

Raised and educated in Adelaide, South Australia, William joined the South Australian Police Force where he worked for seven years, primarily as a police prosecutor. Following this, he studied law and arts at Adelaide University, graduating in 1993 while also working for the Office of Director of Public Prosecutions. William worked as a barrister and solicitor in Adelaide before joining the ICTY in 1996. In 1999, he received a Masters in International Law from Leiden University, the Netherlands.