Most of the work of the Law and the Future of War research group is published in the form of scholarly journal articles and book chapters. Most research papers are accompanied by policy briefs that provide an executive summary of the papers.

Autonomous military platforms

AUKUS, the Regulation of the Ocean and the Legal Dangers of Working Together
Eve Massingham & Simon McKenzie
(2023) 37 Ocean Yearbook Online 136–170
Policy brief (PDF, 492.5 KB)

The legal requirement for command and the future of autonomous military platforms
Rain Liivoja, Eve Massingham & Simon McKenzie
(2022) 99 International Law Studies 638–675

Navigating to autonomy: legal questions in use of autonomous aerial vehicles by the Australian military
Eve Massingham
(2021) 3(1) Australian Journal of Defence & Strategic Studies 3–25
Overview table (PDF, 719.5 KB)

Autonomous technology and dynamic obligations: uncrewed maritime vehicles and the regulation of maritime military surveillance in the exclusive economic zone
Simon McKenzie
(2020) 10(2) Asian Journal of International Law 146–175
Policy brief (PDF, 875.6 KB)

Radio silence: autonomous military aircraft and the importance of communication for their use in peace time and in times of armed conflict under international law
Eve Massingham
(2020) 1 Asia-Pacific Journal of International Humanitarian Law 184–208
Policy brief (PDF, 673.7 KB)

When is a ship a ship? Use by State armed forces of un-crewed maritime vehicles and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
Simon McKenzie
(2020) 21(2) Melbourne Journal of International Law 373–402
Policy brief (PDF, 0.9 MB)

Autonomous weapons and weapons review

Enhancing the legal review of autonomous weapon systems: report of an expert meeting
Netta Goussac, Natalia Jevglevskaja, Rain Liivoja & Lauren Sanders
(Law and the Future of War Research Group, 2023)

Weapons reviews of autonomous weapon systems: report on submissions to the GGE on LAWS (version 1.0)
Rosie Cavdarski, Lauren Sanders and Rain Liivoja
(Law and the Future of War Research Group, 2023)

Legal reviews of in situ learning in autonomous weapons
Tim McFarland & Zena Assaad
(2023) 25(1) Ethics & Information Technology #9

The utility of weapons reviews in addressing concerns raised by autonomous weapon systems
Damian Copeland, Rain Liivoja & Lauren Sanders
(2022) Journal of Conflict & Security Law (advance access)
Policy brief (PDF, 613.5 KB)

Minimum levels of human intervention in autonomous attacks
Tim McFarland
(2022) 27(3) Journal of Conflict & Security Law 387–409
Policy brief (PDF, 1.1 MB)

Testing knowledge: weapons reviews of autonomous weapons systems and the international criminal trial
Eve Massingham & Simon McKenzie
Futures of international criminal justice (Emma Palmer, Edwin Bikundo, Susan Harris Rimmer & Martin Clark eds, Routledge 2021) 177–197
Policy brief (PDF, 1.5 MB)

The better instincts of humanity: humanitarian arguments in defense of international arms control
Natalia Jevglevskaja and Rain Liivoja
Lethal autonomous weapons: re-examining the law and ethics of robotic warfare (Jai Galliott, Duncan MacIntosh & Jens David Ohlin eds, Oxford University Press 2021) 103–119
Policy brief (PDF, 1.3 MB)

Autonomous military systems generally

The guilty (silicon) mind: blameworthiness and liability in human-machine teaming
Brendan Walker-Munro and Zena Assaad
(2023) 8(1) Cambridge Law Review 1–24
Policy brief (PDF, 140.2 KB)

Autonomous systems, superior orders and manifest unlawfulness: is there a duty to disobey?
Brendan Walker-Munro
(2023) 61(1) Military Law & Law of War Review 59–85
Policy brief

Reconciling trust and control in the regulation of autonomous military systems
Tim McFarland
(2022) 30(4) International Journal of Law & Information Technology 472–483
Policy brief (PDF, 1.4 MB)

Autonomous systems, private actors, outer space and war: lessons for addressing accountability concerns in uncertain legal environments
Eve Massingham & Dale Stephens
(2022) 23(2) Melbourne Journal of International Law 276-305
Policy brief (PDF, 1.1 MB)

The challenge of automated and autonomous technologies to Australian Defence Force compliance with workplace health and safety laws
Simon McKenzie
(2022) 4(1) Australian Journal of Defence & Strategic Studies 65–88
Policy brief (PDF, 140.3 KB)

Do androids dream of a duty of care? Arguing for civil liability for autonomous military systems in Australia
Brendan Walker-Munro
(2022) 50(1) UWA Law Review 239–272
Policy brief (PDF, 0.9 MB)

Exploring manufacturer strict liability as regulation for autonomous military systems
Brendan Walker-Munro
(2022) 27(2) Torts Law Journal 182–209
Policy brief (PDF, 606.9 KB)

A method for ethical AI in defence: a case study on developing trustworthy autonomous systems
Tara Roberson, Stephen Bornstein, Rain Liivoja, Simon Ng, Jason Scholz & Kate Devitt
(2022) Journal of Responsible Technology #100036

Cyber operations

Taking care of the computer: precautions against military operations by automated computer systems powered by artificial intelligence
Simon McKenzie & Eve Massingham
(2021) 12(1) Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies 224–250
Policy brief (PDF, 1.8 MB)

Autonomous cyber capabilities under international law
Rain Liivoja, Maarja Naagel & Ann Väljataga
(NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence 2019)

Spectrum management

Automation of the spectrum, automation and the spectrum: legal challenges when optimising spectrum use for military operations
Eve Massingham
(2021) 3(2) Law, Technology & Humans 91–106
Policy brief (PDF, 529.4 KB)

Military bioscience

Being more than you can be: enhancement of warfighters and the law of armed conflict
Rain Liivoja
The future law of armed conflict (Matthew C Waxman & Thomas W Oakley eds, Oxford University Press 2022) 83–102

Eradicating war memories: neuroscientific reality and ethical concerns
Marijn C W Kroes & Rain Liivoja
(2019) 101(910) International Review of the Red Cross 69–95

Biomedical enhancement of warfighters and the legal protection of military medical personnel in armed conflict
Rain Liivoja
(2018) 26(3) Medical Law Review 421–448

Left of bang interventions in trauma: some legal implications of military medical prophylaxis
Rain Liivoja
(2018) 44(7) Journal of Medical Ethics 509–510

Are enhanced warfighters weapons, means, or methods of warfare?
Rain Liivoja & Luke Chircop
(2018) 94 International Law Studies 161–185